On this, the last day of February, I recall how I used to pity those poor kids who could only celebrate their birthdays on the actual date, every couple of years. I felt uncomfortable about the ambiguous nature of the leap year birthday. I mean, those poor kids had to hesitate and figure out an understandable response to the question, “How old are you?”.
I have always had a distaste for ambiguity. Therefore, I ask a lot of questions. (Liars HATE it that I ask a lot of questions. I catch them off guard, it seems…) I ask people a lot of questions, not because I’m nosy but because when I have all the facts about a given situation, I can make better decisions for myself. It isn’t a judgement issue. It’s more like: “If you’re going to do this….then I’m going to do that.” “If you are going to call back later, I’ll leave my phone on. If not, I’ll turn it off so I won’t be disturbed while I work.” It isn’t that I’m asking someone TO call back. Whatever their decision about this is, will be fine with me. I just want to know one way or the other so I can take action accordingly.
Turns out that science has now substantiated why ambiguity bugs me ( or all of us) as much as it does. The phenomenon actually screws with our heads. According to a study published in the Journal of Science, the reason lies in how the brain responds emotionally, and sometimes, even illogically, when forced to make decisions based on conflicting or little evidence. These so-called ambiguous decisions are different from decisions that we think of as risky decisions. No wonder the person who is being lied to, for example, appears so nutty to the rest of the world. That person is being fed conflicting information. The heart hears what it wants to hear, but the head says, “Um….hold on there just a minute….That doesn’t make sense!”
Wait….If it looks like a duck…then, it IS a duck….but it also looks like a rabbit. Which do I choose?
When faced with a risky decision, one is not sure about the outcome of a particular choice but can have a notion about the probability of success. In an ambiguous decision, a person is ignorant of both factors. Thus, the uncomfortable feeling….the uncertainty, and sometimes illogical and absurd behaviors.
Brain specialists would say ambiguity is the discomfort from knowing there is something you don’t know that you wish you did. This probably stems back to the fight or flight area of the brain, the hippocampus, and is a matter of survival. In the previously mentioned experiment, subjects were given the opportunity to place ambiguous bets while their brains were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imager (fMRI). In this part of the experiment, participants were given the choice between placing a monetary bet on the chances of drawing a red card from a “risky” deck that had 20 red cards and 20 black cards…that is, where the probability of choosing either color was 50-50, and making the same bet with an “ambiguous” deck where the color composition of the cards was unknown.
In the majority of cases, the participants decided to place the risky bet. Logically, however, both bets would have been equally good because in both cases, the chance of pulling a red card on the first draw was 50-50.
The brain scans taken during the experiment revealed that ambiguous betters were often accompanied by activation of the parts of the brain known as the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). These are two areas of the brain that are involved in the whole emotions processing thing. The amygdala has been found to be closely associated with fear, which, again, harkens back to being in survival mode. If you think about it, a correlation between aversion to ambiguous decisions and activation of emotional parts of the brain makes perfect sense from an evolutionary point of view. Do I go into that dark cave or don’t I? Well, first, I need to know if a saber toothed tiger is in there, right? And I’m going to be a little nervous about it until I find out. Should I leave my boyfriend or not….Well, first, I need to find out if he really IS cheating on me. In the modern human brain, this translates into a reluctance to bet on or against an event if it seems at all ambiguous.
The results of this study could help those of us in the field of Psychology, understand how humans make decisions in the real world, because the choices people make are often based on very limited information. (i.e…..All signs point to cheating, but he denies it….or I’m not going to walk into that dark cave if there’s a tiger in there, because it will eat me alive. )
Makes sense to me.
Anyway….Happy Birthday, Leapers…er…Leap Yearlings…um…people whose birthdays are on leap year. Here’s a nice mug. Have some coffee.
Do you suffer from depression? Dr. Michael Greger teaches us the scientific reasoning behind why eating an animal-protein diet may exacerbate the problem.
Tryptophan is one amino among many found in proteins, and they compete with one another for transport across the blood-brain barrier into the brain. And since tryptophan is present in most animal proteins in relatively small quantities, it gets muscled out of the way. If you eat plant foods, though, the carbohydrates cause a release of insulin, which causes your muscles to take up the nontryptophan amino acids as fuel, and so your tryptophan can be first in line for brain access.
Animal foods can even make things worse: “When tryptophan is ingested as part of a protein meal, serum tryptophan levels rise, but brain tryptophan levels decline due to the mechanism of transport used by tryptophan to cross the blood–brain barrier.”
The tryptophan levels in those given a high protein turkey, egg, and cheese breakfast dropped whereas in the waffle-OJ group, their trytrophan levels went up.
This may actually explain the carbohydrate cravings one sees in PMS—your brain may be trying to get you to boost tryptophan levels to feel better. “Consumption of a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor evening test meals during the premenstrual period improved depression, tension, anger, confusion, sadness, fatigue, alertness, and calmness scores—significantly–among patients with premenstrual syndrome.”
“Because synthesis of brain serotonin, which is known to be involved in mood and appetite, increases after carbohydrate intake, premenstrual syndrome subjects may overconsume carbohydrates in an attempt to improve their dysphoric mood state.”
Lavender has been studied recently for several purposes including treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, as well as a number of other things. Its analgesic effect, however, its painkiller effect, is one of the widely studied properties. Surprising, then, that there hasn’t apparently been a single documented clinical trial to study lavender for the treatment of migraine headaches that affects tens of millions of Americans every year. Until now: “Lavender Essential Oil in the Treatment of Migraine Headache: A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.”
Migraine sufferers were asked to—at the early signs of headache—rub 2–3 drops of the lavender essential oil onto their upper lip and inhale its vapor for a 15-min period of time and score the severity of their headache for the next two hours. In the control group they did the same thing except they used drops of basically unscented liquid wax. Neither group was allowed to use any painkillers. In the lavender group 74% of patients had an improvement in their symptoms, significantly better than placebo. Though in the study lavender wasn’t directly compared to more conventional treatments, lavender appears to stack up pretty well compared to typical drugs. Lavender helped about three quarters of the time, high dose Tylenol only works about half the time, and Ibuprofen 57% of the time. The #1 prescription drug, generic imitrex, is effective 59% of the time, and then the hardcore treatment they use in emergency rooms where they inject you under the skin, 70%. All of these work better than the original migraine therapy, known as trepanning, where doctors drilled a hole in your head to let the evil spirits escape.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that inhalation of lavender essential oil may be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches.
You can buy pharmaceutical grade lavender for $21 HERE.